MAS SISTEMAS OPERATIVOS
Operating system for the Honeywell 800/1800. Early 1960s [Bouvard 1964].
Atlas I Supervisor
Supervisor Program for the first computer designed to use an operating system. Introduced system calls and virtual storage. U. of Manchester, mid 1960s [Kilburn et al 1961, Howarth et al 1961].
B1, B2, B3, B4
Operating Systems for NCR Century series computers. Early 1960s [Datapro 1974].
Basic Executive System
Memory-based real-time executive for the IBM 1710. Early 1960s [Harrison et al 1981].
FORTRAN Monitor system. Operating System developed by North American Aviation for the IBM 709. Late 1950s [Weizer 1981, Bashe et al 1986].
A very early operating system developed by General Motors for the IBM 701. Unnamed. About 1955 [Steel 1964].
Honeywell Executive System. Operating System for the Honeywell 800. Early 1960s [Bouvard 1964].
IBM 1410/1710 OS
OS for the IBM 1410/1710. Early 1960s [Barnett & Fitzgerald 1964].
Predecessor to IBM OS/360 for 709x architectures. Early 1960s. [IBM 1963].
Input Output Selector
An IO Control System for the DDP-116 minicomputer. One of the earliest OSs for minis. Mid 1960s [Koudela 1973].
Input Output System
A very early operating system developed by General Motors and North American Aviation for the IBM-704. About 1956. [Steel 1964, Bashe et al 1986].
Input Output Control System. An early I/O Executive for the IBM 7090. About 1960.
Semi-Automatic Business Related Environment. The first major transaction processing system, developed by IBM and American Airlines for the IBM 7090. Early 1960s [Jarema & Sussenguth 1981].
Semi-Automatic Ground Environment system. Control Program for IBM AN/FSQ7 to monitor weapons systems. First real-time control system. Late 1950s [Everett et al 1957].
Operating System developed by the IBM SHARE Users Group for the 709. Late 1950s [Shell et al 1959].
BATCH SYSTEMS FOR LARGE COMPUTERS
This section includes OSs for large "mainframe" computers that are primarily batch-oriented. Very early systems of this type are listed in the previous section. Timesharing systems will be listed in the next section.
A batch-oriented OS for the CDC 6600 at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories. Early 1970s [Tanenbaum & Benson 1973].
Basic Operating System for the IBM/360. Early 1960s [Weizer 1981].
Business-oriented OS for the IBM/360. Late 1960s [Weizer 1981].
Research OS for the CDC 6400. Late 1960s. [Lampson & Sturgis 1976].
OS for the UNIVAC 1108 in a service bureau environment. Case Western Reserve, Early 1970s [Lynch 1972, Lynch 1975].
Original name for CDC SCOPE Operating System. Developed at CDC Chippewa Labs.
Disk Operating System for RCA Spectra 70 series. Late 1960s [Weizer 1981].
Operating System for IBM S/360. IBM Corp. Mid 1960s [Bender et al 1967].
Operating System for the IBM S/370. Virtual Storage version of DOS/360. IBM Corp., early 1970s [Birch 1973].
Operating System for the IBM 43XX. Extended version of DOS/VS. Early 1980s.
EMAS, EMAS 2900
Edinburgh Multi-Access System for ICL 4-75. Late 1970s [Whitfield & Whight 1983, Stephens et al 1980].
EXEC I, EXEC II
Single User OSs for UNIVAC 1107 computers. Early 1960s [Borgerson et al 1978].
EXEC 3, EXEC 4
Improved versions of EXEC II for UNIVAC 1108. Late 1960's [Lynch 1972].
Multiprogrammed OS for UNIVAC 1108. Late 1960s [Sayers 1971, Borgerson et al 1978].
General Comprehensive OS. Honeywell Series 60 and 6000 systems. Based on GECOS. Early 1970's.
Multiprogrammed OS for GE 600 series computers. Late 1960s [Sayres 1971].
George 1,2,3, and 4
OS for various models of ICL 1900 series computers. Late 1960s [Cuttle & Robinson 1970, Goodman 1972, Oestreicher 1971].
OS for the CDC 6600 developed at the Institute for Defense Analyses, based on the concept of a supervisory computer. Late 1960s [Gaines 1972].
OS for Control Data 3300/3500. Late 1960s [Sayres 1971].
Master Control Program. Generic name used for Burroughs Operating Systems, including 1700 and 5500, 6600, and 7700 series. Early 1960's throughmid 1970's [McKeag et al 1976, Sayres 1971].
Operating System for the IBM S/360. See OS/MFT.
Virtual storage OS for IBM S/370. See OS/MVS.
Popular OS for IBM S/360 and S/370. See OS/MVT.
Generic name for operating systems for the IBM S/360, and later S/370. First version released 1966 [Mealy et al 1966]. See also OS/PCP, OS/MFT, OS/MVT, OS/VS1, OS/SVS, and OS/MVS.
Operating System for UNIVAC 1106 and 1110.
Multiprogramming with a Fixed number of Tasks. Simple version of OS/MVT suitable for processors with limited memory. First release 1967, substantial revision 1968. [Mealy et al 1966, Auslander et al 1981].
Multiple Virtual Space. Virtual storage OS for IBM 370, derived from MVT. Originally called VS2, Release 2. First release 1974 [Scherr 1973, Auslander et al 1981].
Multiprogramming with a Variable Number of Tasks. Popular OS for IBM 360/370. First release 1967 [Flores 1973, Auslander et al 1981].
Primary Control Program. Early batch-serial version of IBM OS/360. First release 1966 [Mealy et al 1966, Auslander et al 1981].
Single Virtual Space. Initial release of OS/VS2. Virtual Storage OS for IBM S/370, based closely on OS/MVT. First release 1972 [Auslander et al 1981].
Virtual System 1. Virtual Storage OS for the IBM 370, based on OS/MFT. First release 1972 [Wheeler 1974, Auslander et al 1981].
Virtual System 2. Virtual Storage OS for the IBM 370, based on OS/MVT. Release 1 became known as OS/SVS. Release 2 became known as OS/MVS.
Early version of IBM OS/360. See OS/PCP.
Primary OS for RCA Spectra 70. Late 1960s.
Supervisory Control of Program Execution. Early OS for CDC 6000 Computers. Late 1960s [McKeag et al 1976].
Experimental advanced OS developed for CDC 6600 computers.
Experimental OS for the IBM S/360. Late 1960s [Sevcik et al 1972, Tschritzis & Bernstein 1974].
Virtual Storage OS for IBM S/370. See OS/SVS.
Tape Scope 2
Tape based OS derived from SCOPE for the CDC System 17. Early 1970s. [Datapro 1974].
Tape and Disk operating system for the RCA Spectra 70. Late 1960s [Sayres 1971].
Operating System for the Titan (Atlas II) Computer, successor to Atlas I at
the U. of Manchester. mid 1960s [Hartley 1972, McKeag et al 1976].
Tape Operating System. Early operating system for the RCA Spectra 70 [Weizer
Early operating system for the IBM S/360. Mid 1960s [Bender et al 1967].
IBM Virtual Storage OS. See OS/VS1.
IBM Virtual Storage OS. See OS/VS2.
This section lists operating systems for large and medium computers primarily
oriented to interactive timesharing use. Although some of these systems also
support batch processing and occasionally real-time activities, these are considered
secondary uses. Very early timesharing systems are included here. Multiuser
small computer systems, supporting only a few users, are not included; these
are listed in the sections on minicomputer and microcomputer OSs. UNIX and its
variants have their own category.
2000E & 2000F
Timesharing operating systems for the HP 2100. Early 1970s [Datapro 1974].
Batch Time-Sharing Monitor for XDS Sigma 5/7. Late 1960s [Sayres 1971].
Cambridge Multiple Access System. University of Cambridge (England). Late 1960s [Wilkes 1973].
The Compatible Time Sharing System. Early Timesharing OS developed at MIT for a modified IBM 7090. Early 1960's [Crisman et al 1964].
Dartmouth Time-Sharing System. Timesharing with the BASIC language for liberal arts students, on a novel 2-computer system (GE-235 + Datanet 30). Mid 1960s [Kemeny & Kurtz 1968].
JOHNNIAC Open Shop System. An early on-line computing system for the JOHNNIAC computer. Early 1960s [Shaw 1964].
Kent On-Line System, Kent Univ. England, Late 1960s [Brown 1971].
Timesharing OS for CDC 6000 and CYBER computers. Successor to SCOPE. Control Data Corp., Early 1970s [Atwood 1976].
Lawrence Timesharing System. Early Timesharing OS at Lawrence Livermore Laboratories. [Sutherland et al 1971].
Original name for CDC KRONOS OS.
Multiple Console Time Sharing System developed to support CAD applications at General Motors. Early 1970s [Brown et al 1975].
Operating System for the Data General MV4000. Early 1980s [Computerworld 1984].
Multi-Access OS. Late 1960s [Rees 1971].
Michigan Terminal System. Late 1960s. [Boettner & Alexander 1975].
The MULTiplexed Information and Computing Service. A timesharing system featuring novel techniques for memory management and respource protection. Developed by M.I.T., Bell Labs, & G.E. for the GE645. Later developed by Honeywell. Late 1960s [Corbato & Vyssotsky 1965, Organick 1972].
OS for CDC Cyber Computers. Based on KRONOS.
Oregon State Open Shop OS. A timesharing system for the CDC 3300. Late 1960s [Meeker et al 1969].
Pitt Time Sharing System
An early Timesharing system developed at the University of Pittsburgh for the IBM S/360. Late 1960s [Badger & Johnson 1968].
People's Time Sharing System. A time sharing system for the CDC 6600 at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories, based on BKY. Early 1970s [Tanenbaum & Benson 1973].
A Timesharing System for a modified PDP-10. Based partially on abstract machine concepts. Early 1970's. [Bobrow et al 1972].
Total Operating System. Timesharing OS for DEC PDP-10. Digital Equipment Corp. Late 1960s [Bell et al 1978].
Improved version of TOPS-10 for the DECSystem 20, also using concepts from TENEX. Early 1970s [Bell et al 1978].
Time Sharing Monitor. Early timesharing OS developed by IBM for the 7090. Early 1960s [Kinslow 1964].
Early name for Univac VMOS.
Time Sharing OS for RCA Spectra 70/46. Mid 1960s [Weizer 1981].
Timesharing OS for the DEC PDP-8. Late 1970s [Datapro 1974].
An early timesharing system for the AN/FSQ-32. Early 1960s [Schwartz et al 1964].
Timesharing OS for General Automation System 18/30. Early 1970s [Datapro 1974].
Experimental timesharing OS for a modified PDP-8, developed at Carnegie-Mellon Univ. Late 1960s [van de Goor et al 1969, Sayres 1971].
Timesharing OS developed by IBM for the S/360. Mid 1960s [Lett & Konigsford 1968, Katzan 1986].
Time Sharing Operating System for Xerox Data Systems SIGMA computers. Early 1970s.
Standard operating system for DEC VAX. Based on RSX-11. Late 1970s [Kenah & Bate 1984].
Timesharing OS for the RCA Spectra 70. Late 1960s [Fogel 1974, Weizer 1981].
Standard OS for Digital Equipment Corp. VAX. See VAX/VMS.
Operating System for the Univac Series 90. Derived from VMOS. Early 1970s.
MINICOMPUTER OPERATING SYSTEMS
This category includes single-user and small multiuser operating systems for minicomputers. Real-time OSs are listed in a later section.
Small, user-friendly OS for the Hewlett-Packard 300. Late 1970s [Carpenter 1979].
Advanced Monitor System. A single user interactive disk or tape OS for the PDP-9 & PDP-15. Digital Equipment Corp., Late 1960s.
Advanced Operating System for Data General Eclipse and MV series. Late 1970s.
Basic Control Monitor for Xerox 530. Early 1970s [Datapro 1974].
Basic Control System for HP 2100. Early 1970s [Datapro 1974].
Business Executive System for Timesharing. OS for Qantel Minicomputers [Datapro 1974].
Basic Executive & Timekeeper. OS for Varian minicomputers. Early 1970s [Datapro 1974].
Basic Monitor System for the DEC PDP-9 and PDP-15. Early 1970s [Datapro 1974].
Basic OS for Interdata (later Perkin-Elmer) Minicomputers. Early 1970s [Datapro 1974].
Batch operating system for Honeywell System 700.
OS for Billings computers. Late 1970s(?) [Computerworld 1984].
Business Operating Software. Business oriented OS for Z80, PDP-11, 8086, and 68000. BOS National, Inc. Early 1980s [Mini-Micro 1986].
Basic OS Software for Basic/Four 350/400/500. Includes monitor, realtime executive, BASIC. Early 1970s [Datapro 1974].
OS for the RC-4000 Computer.
Batch OS for the DEC PDP-15. Late 1970s [Datapro 1974].
Business oriented operating system for the GRI-99. Mid 1970s.
Cassette Monitor system for the DEC PDP-8. Early 1970s [Datapro 1974].
Cassette Monitor System for the DEC PDP-11. Early 1970s [Datapro 1974].
Batch oriented disk operating system for the Cincinnati Milacron CIP/2200. Early 1970s [Datapro 1974].
Cassette OS for Computer Automation Alpha LSI and Naked Mini LSI. Early 1970s [Datapro 1974].
Commercial Operating System. Early OS for the PDP-11.
Concurrent Operating System. Provided limited multiprogramming for Univac 9200, 9300. Early 1970s [Datapro 1974].
Operating System for GEC Computers. Early 1970s [Datapro 1974].
Commercial data management system for the PDP-8. Late 1970s [Datapro 1974].
Operating System for the Honeywell DPS 8C/L66. Early 1980s? [Computerworld 1984].
Control Program Facility. Operating System for the IBM System 38. Early 1980s [Taylor 1981].
Card/Paper Tape Programming System for the IBM 1130. Early 1970s [Datapro 1974].
An early OS for DEC minicomputers. Late 1960s [Cederquist 1970].
Cassette Tape OS for Datapoint 1100, 2200, 5500. Late 1970s [Datapro 1974].
Commercial single or multiuser OS for small PDP-11 systems. Digital Equipment Corp. [Digital 1984].
OS for the Tandy TRS-80. Simple updates to TRSDOS to support the Percom double-density board. Percom Data Co. Early 1980s [Kelly 1981].
Disk/Drum Based OS for General Automation SPC-16 & System 18/30. Late 1970s [Datapro 1974].
Disk Monitor System for IBM 1130. Early 1970s [Datapro 1974].
Disk Monitor System for General Automation System 18/30. Early 1970s [Datapro 1974].
OS for NCR computers. Early 1980s? [Computerworld 1984].
OS for Datapoint minicomputers. Late 1970s [Computerworld 1984].
Disk OS for Interdata computers; Lockheed computers; HP 2100; Datapoint 1100, 2200, 5500; DEC PDP-11; Prime 100,200,300; Four-Phase System IV; GEC Computers; Computer Automation computers. Early 1970s [Datapro 1974].
Disk OS for DEC PDP-15. Early 1970s [Datapro 1974].
Single User operating system for the GRI-99 Minicomputer. GRI Corp. Late 1970s [Mooney 1979].
Operating System for the TI-990. Late 1970s? [Computerworld 1984].
Operating System for the Hitachi 8400. Early 1970s.
Serial batch OS for the English Electric KDF9, designed to support program development. Mid 1960s [Burns et al 1966].
OS for the British KDF9. Based on EGDON. Late 1960s [Poole 1968].
Operating System for the British KDF9. Late 1960s [Wells 1971].
A multiprogrammed OS for the PDP-11.
Experimental Foreground/Background OS for the PDP-8. Late 1960s [Alderman 1969].
Free Standing Operating System. Basic memory-resident OS for General Automation SPC-16 mini. Early 1970s [Datapro 1974].
OS for NCR 8200 series. Early 1980s? [Computerworld 1984].
OS for NCR 8200 series. Early 1980s? [Computerworld 1984].
Operating System for the PDP-10.
Principal OS for Mod Comp Computers. Early 1970s [Datapro 1974].
Basic Operating System for the ModComp Computers. Early 1970s [Datapro 1974].
OS for the Honeywell Series 200. Late 1960s [Sayres 1971].
OS for the Honeywell VPS 6. Early 1980s? [Computerworld 1984].
OS for Computer Technology minicomputers. Late 1970s [Datapro 1974].
Master OS for Varian minicomputers. Tape or disk based batch system.
Minimum Operating System. Card-based batch monitor for Univac 9200, 9300. Early 1970s [Datapro 1974].
Multiprogramming OS for NCR Century 300 computer. Late 1960s.
OS for HP 3000. Early 1970s.
Magnetic Tape OS for Computer Automation Alpha LSI & Naked Mini LSI. Early 1970s [Datapro 1974].
Magnetic Tape OS for Datapoint 1100, 2200, 5500. Early 1970s [Datapro 1974].
Magnetic Tape System for HP 2100. Early 1970s [Datapro 1974].
OS for the MU5 computer at the U. of Manchester (?). Early 1970s. [Morris et al 1972].
Multi-user multiprogramming, database oriented OS for DEC computers. Early 1970s [Datapro 1974].
Nonconcurrent OS. Tape or disk based OS for Univac 9200 & 9300. Early 1970s [Datapro 1974].
Operating System for GEC Computers. Early 1970s [Datapro 1974].
OS/4 and OS/7.
Operating Systems for UNIVAC 9700. Late 1960s (?).
Experimental OS for a small computer. Early 1970s [Stoy & Strachey 1972].
Operating System for HITAC 8700/8800. About 1975.
Operating System for the PDP-8. Ancestor of RT-11. Digital Equipment Corp. Mid 1970s [Datapro 1974].
OS for Honeywell Series 200 family. Late 1960s.
OS for Honeywell 200/2000. Early 1970s(?).
Monitor System for the DEC PDP-6. Mid 1960s [Bell et al 1978].
PDP-10/50 Swapping Monitor
An early OS for the DEC PDP-10. Late 1960s [Thomas 1972].
Professional Operating System. Standard OS for the PRO-350 and PRO-380. Derived from RSX-11. Digital Equipment Corp. Early 1980s.
OS for the PR1ME minicomputers. Early 1980s [Computerworld 1984].
Version of TSX-PLUS for the PRO-350.
Paper Tape OS for the Cincinnati Milacron CIP/2200.
Research OS for RC-4000 Computer. [Brinch Hansen 1973].
Single-User OS for the Data General NOVA. Mid 1970s [Datapro 1974].
OS for Datapoint computers. Early 1980s? [Datapoint 1984].
Multiuser OS for DEC PDP-11. Digital Equipment Corp. [Digital 1984].
Single User OS for DEC PDP-11. Digital Equipment Corp. About 1975. [Digital 1984].
System Control Program. Basic OS for the Burroughs B700 series. Early 1970s [Datapro 1974].
System Control Program. Multiprogramming OS for the IBM System/3. Early 1970s [Taylor 1981].
SEL 810A/810B OS
Batch Serial Operating System for the SEL 810A/810B minicomputer. Late 1960s [Sayres 1971].
Standalone OS for Data General Nova & Supernova. Early 1970s [Datapro 1974].
System Support Program. Multitasking OS for the IBM System/34. Mid 1970s [Taylor 1981].
General Purpose OS kernel for the HP 9000 Series 500. Early 1980s [Georg et al 1984].
System Executive. A time-sharing monitor for SIGMA/2 and small IBM S/360 computers. Early 1970s [Reiter 1972].
Teletype Operating System for the Microdata 1600 & 3200 minicomputers. Early 1970s [Datapro 1974].
A portable OS for Minicomputers. PDP-11, 68000 series, 32000 series. Late 1970s. [Richards et al 1979].
Experimental OS for a modified Interdata minicomputer, based on matching the computer architecture to the operating system. Early 1970s [Liskov 1971, Tschiritzis & Bernstein 1974].
Operating System for Harris 600, 700, 800 computers. Early 1980s? [Computerworld 1984].
Operating System for Harris computers. Early 1980s? [Computerworld 1984].
Batch Processing OS for the Xerox Data Systems SIGMA Computers. Early 1970s(?).
MICROCOMPUTER OPERATING SYSTEMS
Operating systems for microcomputers and personal computers. Early systems in this category have command-line (character-oriented) user interfaces, while later systems are generally GUI-based. See also Workstation Operating Systems.
Basic operating system for Amiga computers. Derived from TRIPOS. Mid 1980s [Pountain 1986].
Multiuser, multiprocessing OS for the 68000 family of microprocessors. Alpha Microsystems. Early 1980s.
Basic Operating System for Apple II Computers. Late 1970s.
Operating System for the Atari 400/800. Late 1970s.
Os based on CP/M for Cromemco Computers (8080 series). Late 1970s.
Concurrent 68K, Concurrent 286
Real-time multi-user OS for the 68000 and 80x86 family. Combines features of PC-DOS and UNIX. Digital Research, Mid 1980s.
A version of CP/M-86 supporting limited multitasking. Digital Research, early 1980s [Kornstein 1983].
Concurrent DOS, Concurrent PC-DOS
Multitasking OS combining capabilities of PC-DOS and CPM. For 8086 & 68000 families. Digital Research, early 1980's.
Concurrent DOS 8-16
Combined version of Concurrent DOS and CP/M 2.2. CompuPro, Early 1980s.
Control Program for Microcomputers. For Intel 8080 and Z-80. Digital Research Inc. Widely used version is CP/M 2.2. First OS for Microcomputers. About 1975 [Kildall 1981, Zaks 1980].
Extended CP/M based OS for 8086 family. Digital Research, Early 1980s [Kildall 1981].
Combined version of CP/M 2.2 and CP/M-86. CompuPro, Mid 1980s.
Extended version of CP/M supporting segmented addressing, etc. Digital Research. Mid 1980s [Dahmke 1983].
Standard OS for Apple II Computers.
OS for the Tandy TRS-80. Substantial extension of TRSDOS, including support for double density disks. Micro Systems Software. Early 1980s [Kolya 1981].
Early version of MS-DOS. Seattle Computer Products, Late 1970s [Paterson 1983].
Multitasking OS for Z80, 8086, 68000, Z8000. Developed by GMD in Germany. Mid 1980s.
A small OS for the 6809 and others. Technical Systems Consultants [Mini-Micro 1985].
Graphics OS environment for IBM-PC. Digital Research, Early 1980s.
Graphics Operating System for Commodore 64, based on GEM. Commodore Business Machines, Inc. Mid 1980s.
Heath Disk OS. Operating System for H-89 and other Heath Computers. Early 1980s [Jorgenson 1981, Pechura 1983].
An alternative OS for the Atari 400/800. Early 1980s [Leemon 1982].
Extended version of TRSDOS for the TRS-80 (Z80). Logical Systems, Inc. Early 1980s [Daneliuk 1982].
Multitasking version of BOS/5.
Microdisk Op Sys
OS for MS2000 using 1805. RCA Microsystems [Mini-Micro 1985].
A small Pascal Operating Environment for the LSI-11. Digital Equipment Corp. [Digital 1984].
Version of VMS for the MicroVAX. Digital Equipment Corp. Mid 1980s.
p-code system for Z80, 8080, 8086, 68000. Volition Systems. [Mini-Micro 1985].
Small OS for Z80. UTC/Mostek [Mini-Micro Systems 1985].
Multi-user version of CP/M. Digital Research, late 1970's [Kildall 1981].
Version of MP/M for 8086 family CPU. Digital Research, Early 1980s [Kildall 1981].
Version of AOS for the Data General Micro-Nova. Late 1970s [Zarella 1981].
OS for Gould Concept-32 computers. Early 1980s.
Improved OS for 8086 family, based partly on CP/M. Newer versions somewhat similar to UNIX. MicroSoft Corp. Adapted as PC-DOS for IBM-PC. Late 1970's [Paterson 1983, King 1983].
Small ROM-based version of MS-DOS for Z80 home computers. MicroSoft Corp. Early 1980s.
Limited version of MS-DOS for the Z80. MicroSoft Corp. Early 1980s [Mini-Micro 1985].
Multitasking, Multiprocessing OS for 8086 and 68000 families. Industrial Programming, Inc. Early 1980s [Mini-Micro 1986].
Disk Operating System for the Tandy TRS-80. Features ability to read and write various file formats. Cosmopolitan Electronics Corp. Early 1980s [Archer 1982].
A FORTH operating environment for the 68000. Creative Solutions [Mini-Micro 1985].
An extended version of TRSDOS for the TRS-80. Apparat, Inc. Early 1980s [Kelly 1982].
Original name for THEOS.
OS for 8086, 68000. Applied Systems. [Mini-Micro 1985].
Operating system for IBM Personal System 2. IBM Corporation, Late 1980s [White & Grehan 1987, Letwin 1988].
Small computer OS similar to UNIX, stripped down and with real-time capabilities. M68000 and 6809 systems, including TI Color Computer, Tandy, Dragon, others. MicroWare Corp. Mid 1980's [Bidmead 1984].
Support environment for UCSD Pascal, based on an abstract "p-machine." Developed at U. of Calif. at San Diego, now distributed by SofTech Microsystems. Late 1970s [Campbell 1983].
For IBM-PC. Version of MS-DOS. Early 1980s [King 1983].
Small, inexpensive VMS lookalike. Wendin Corp. Mid 1980s.
ROM-based version of CP/M 2.2 for small home computers. Digital Research Inc. Early 1980s.
FORTH environment for Z80, 8080, 8086, 6809, 68000, and PDP-11 families. FORTH Inc. early 1980s [Mini-Micro 1986].
Advanced operating system for APPLE computers. M6502 CPU [Campbell 1984, Moore 1984].
Quick and Dirty Operating System. First version of 86-DOS, later MS-DOS. Early 1980s [Patteson 1983].
OS for the British Sinclair QL. Power of UNIX, SuperBASIC command language, up to 20 concurrent tasks with windows. Early 1980s [WMSR 1984].
OS for 8080 and 8086. Systems & Software, Late 1970s [van der Linden & Wilson 1980, Mini-Micro 1985].
Early version of MS-DOS. Seattle Computer Products, Late 1970s.
Operating System for 6809. Software Dynamics [Mini-Micro 1985].
Sophisticated OS for the Apple III. Late 1970s.
Business oriented operating system for small computers. Versions for Z80, 8086, and 68000. Originally named OASIS and distributed by Phase One Systems. Now distributed by THEOS Corporation. Early 1980s [Stagner 1985].
Operating system for the Atari 520ST and 1040ST. Derived from Concurrent 68K.
Version of CP/M for the Epson QX-10.
Standard operating system for TRS-80 computers. Z80 CPU.
Enhanced multitasking version of CP/M for Z80 and 8086. Software 2000, Early 1980s [Fowler 1984, Bierman 1984].
OS for the Tandy TRS-80. Level IV Products. Early 1980s [Archer 1982].
OS for 8080, 6800, 68000, Z8000 series, and others. Boston Systems Office. [Mini-Micro 1985].
MS-DOS compatible system for 68000. Motorola Corp., late 1970s [Glaser 1981].
OS for the Tandy TRS-80. Virtual Technology. Early 1980s [Archer 1982].
PC-DOS version. Waterloo Microsystems Inc. Early 1980s [Mini-Micro 1986].
Graphical, cooperative multitasking operating environment for the IBM-PC, layered on top of MS-DOS. Microsoft, Early 1990s. Most widely used version is 3.1.
Windows for Workgroups
Small OS for the 6800. Wintek [Mini-Micro 1985].
Operating System for the Z8000. Zilog Corp, Late 1970s [Savitzky 1981, Zarella 1981].
WORKSTATION OPERATING SYSTEMS
This category includes operating systems for personal workstations, usually with extensive graphic capabilities and designed for professional use. Many of the systems are based on UNIX.
Business-oriented version of the TRON OS for office workstations with bitmapped displays. Late 1980s [Sakamura 1987c].
Operating System for the Lilith Computer, developed by Niklaus Wirth for Modula-2 programming. Early 1980s [Sand 1984].
Original Operating system for the PERQ Computer. Three Rivers Computer Systems. Early 1980s.
Research workstation OS written in the MESA Language. Xerox Corp. Late 1970s [Redell et al 1980].
UNIX AND ITS DERIVATIVES
This section lists variants of the UNIX operating system, including the standard versions from AT&T and The University of California at Berkeley, and various commercial implementations that bear different names but are substantially similar. Fully identical implementations are not listed. Systems that are based on UNIX but include substantial differences, such as distributed processing, real-time facilities, or simplified versions for microcomputers, are listed in other sections as appropriate.
Version of UNIX for VAX, developed at the University of California at Berkeley. Late 1970s through early 1990s. Latest version is 4.4.[Quarterman et al 1985].
Berkeley Standard Distribution. Official name for Berkeley UNIX.
Version of UNIX. Mark Williams Corp. Early 1980s.
UNIX System V port for Cromemco (68000 CPU). Cromemco Corp., Late 1970s.
UNIX-Compatible system for 68000. NV Philips. [Mini-Micro 1985].
UNIX version for the NSC 32016. National Semiconductor [Mini-Micro 1985].
A public domain OS under development by Richard Stallman and the Free Software Foundation. Expected to be fully compatible with UNIX. The name stands for "Gnu is Not UNIX."
Version of UNIX. 68000, 8086, PDP-11, VAX. Whitesmiths, Ltd. Late 1970s [Plauger & Krieger 1980].
UNIX lookalike for the Artisan DP-09 (6809 CPU). Based partly on Uniflex. Introl Corp., Mid 1980s.
Version of UNIX (System 3) for PDP-11 and VAX. Interactive Systems [Digital 1984].
Version of UNIX. Onyx Corp.
Operating System for Pyramid Computers. Supports UNIX System V and BSD 4.2 concurrently. Early 1980s.
Version of UNIX for 8086. IBM. [Mini-Micro 1985].
Small, inexpensive UNIX lookalike. Wendin Corp. Mid 1980s.
Unix lookalike for 80286 and others. Quantum Software Systems. Early 1980s (?).
Version of UNIX. Alcyon Corp. 68000 family.
UNIX compatible OS for the PDP-11. Human Computing Resources.
Version of UNIX for Z8002. SGS-Ates. [Mini-Micro 1985].
Standard version of UNIX licensed and distributed by AT&T. Early 1980s.
Version of UNIX for DEC PDP-11 and VAX. Digital Equipment Corp. Early 1980's. [Digital 1984].
Version of UNIX for the 68000 family. Unisoft Systems Corp.
Version of UNIX for PDP-11. Uniq Digital Technologies. [Digital 1984].
Version of UNIX for the DEC PDP-11 and VAX. Human Computing Resources. [Digital 1984].
Widely used OS developed by Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie at Bell Laboratories around 1970. Based somewhat on MULTICS. Name probably derived from MULTICS, with "uni" signifying a single-user system. Many versions and imitators. Originally on DEC PDP-7 and PDP-11. Ported to VAX, M68000, and various other processors. Early 1970s [Ritchie & Thompson 1974, Thompson 1978, Bach 1986].
UNIX-compatible real-time OS. Charles River Data Systems [Mini-Micro 1985].
Version of UNIX (System V) for 8086 family, LSI-11. Venturcom [Mini-Micro 1985].
Version of UNIX for various CPUs. Microsoft Corp.
Version of UNIX. Zilog Corp. Late 1970s [Zarella 1982].
HIGHLY RELIABLE AND SECURE SYSTEMS
This section lists operating systems designed with very high reliability or security as a principal goal. Some of these systems are designed to control specialized architectures which include features to support this goal.
Reliable Operating System for the fault-tolerant minicomputer AURAGEN System 4000. Early 1980s [Glazer 1984].
Data Secure Unix. A Security kernel for Unix developed at UCLA. Late 1970s [Popek et al 1979].
Operating System for Tandem NonStop Computers, featuring high reliability. Early 1980s [Serlin 1984].
Capability based OS for the IBM/370. Early 1980s [Hardy 1985].
Kernelized Secure Operating system. UNIX-like OS with a secure kernel. Late 1970s. [McCauley & Drongoski 1979].
An OS for the Tandem Computers featuring high reliability through redundant components. Late 1970s [Bartlett 1981].
Perpetual Processing OS for Computer Consoles Power 55/5. 68000-based multiple CPUs. UNIX-based system featuring high reliability. Early 1980s [Serlin 1984].
An Experimental Provably Secure Operating System. Late 1970s [DeLashmutt 1979].
OS for Stratus-32 Computers. Early 1980s [Computerworld 1984].
Fault tolerant OS for Synapse N+1 system. Early 1980s [Serlin 1984].
Virtual OS. Operating System for STRATUS computers featuring high reliability. Early 1980s [Serlin 1984]. DISTRIBUTED AND NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEMS
This section lists distributed and network operating systems, those designed to provide common control for a set of computers communicating through a network. Network operating systems are considered here to be those which provide support for networking and remote resource access, often by a separate layer of software on top of a conventional OS. Distributed operating systems strive for a high degree of transparency and often support data and process migration.
Distributed systems intended primarily for real-time applications are listed in the real-time section. Distributed systems for shared-memory multiprocessors are listed in the multiprocessor section.
Network Operating Systems
Network OS kernel developed at Carnegie-Mellon U. for the PERQ workstation. Early 1980s [Rashid & Robertson 1981].
Multitasking, multiprocessing version of BOS/5.
A local network operating system based on UNIX, developed for the COCANET local area network at U.C. Berkeley. Early 1980s [Rowe & Birman 1982].
Networking version of CP/M. Digital Research, Early 1980s [Kildall 1981, Rolander 1981].
A memory-resident, diskless version of CP/NET. Digital Research, Early 1980s [Kildall 1981].
Version of MP/M with networking facilities. Digital Research, Early 1980s [Kildall 1981].
Memory-resident, diskless version of MP/NET. Digital Research, Early 1980s [Kildall 1981].
Network OS for Local Area Network and server control by Novell.
A network OS layer for UNIX systems providing transparent distributed access. Early 1980s [Brownbridge et al 1982].
National Software Works. Late 1970s [Millstein 1977].
Network OS for MS-DOS or CP/M. Applied Intelligence [Row & Daugherty 1984].
Network operating system for the ZNET. Late 1970s [Zarella 1981].
Network OS for the ARPANET, based principally on TENEX. Early 1970s [Thomas 1973].
A network oriented OS. Late 1970s [Ward 1980].
Network OS for the 8086, 68000, & 16032 families. Multitasking with transparent remote file access, load balancing, and multiple windows. UNIX and PC-DOS compatible. Lantech Systems, Mid-1980s [Foster 1984].
Distributed Operating Systems
Distributed operating systems differ from network operating systems in supporting a transparent view of the entire network, in which users normally do not distinguish local resources from remote resources.
OS for the Apollo DOMAIN Distributed system. Early 1980s.
A distributed OS based partly on UNIX. Based on passive data objects protected by encrypted capabilities. 1980s [Tanenbaum & Mullender 1981, Mullender & Tanenbaum 1986].
A distributed operating system developed at the U. of Wisconsin. Late 1970s [Finkel 1980].
Distributed OS for the Crystal Multicomputer project at the U. of Wisconsin. Explores coarse-grained parallelism without shared memory for computationally intensive tasks. 1980s [Finkel et al 1989].
Distributed, object-oriented OS featuring a high degree of customization. U. of Idaho, 1990s [Campbell et al 1993].
A distributed object-based operating system developed at Georgia Institute of Technology. Early 1990s. [DasGupta 1991]
The Cambridge Model Distributed System. U. of Cambridge (England). Late 1970s [Wilkes & Needham 1980].
A distributed OS described as a "hunter of idle workstations," which distributes large computationally intensive jobs among available processors in a workstation pool. U. Wisconsin at Madison, 1980s [Litzkow 1988].
Object-oriented distributed computing system for heterogenous environments. BBN Systems, 1980s [Schantz et al 1986].
A distributed version of the DEMOS operating system. Message-based, featuring process migration. U.C. Berkeley, early 1980s [Miller et al 1984].
A Distributed OS for a network of 68000s.
Message-based distributed version of Unix. Early 1980s.
A distributed version of UNIX developed at Bell Labs. late 1980s [xxx 1988].
A distributed object-oriented OS at the U. of Washington, based on an integrated distributed network of bit-mapped workstations. Capability-based. Early 1980s [Almes et al 1985].
A distributed UNIX-compatible system featuring multi-level IPC and variable-weight processes. Univ. of Tokyo, late 1980s [Sinha et al 1991].
Distributed OS based on UNIX. Mid 1980s. [Popek & Walker, 1985].
Distributed OS for MICRONET, a reconfigurable network computer. Late 1970s [Wittie & van Tilborg 1980].
An early version of MOSIX. Controls four linked PDP-11s. Mid 1980s [Barak & Litman 1985].
A distributed version of UNIX supporting full transparency and dynamic process migration for load balancing. Developed at the Hebrew U. of Jersusalem. Mid 1980's to 1990's [Barak et al 1993].
Early version of Eden developed for the VAX environment. The name was chosen because it was "far from Eden."
A version of MOSIX for National Semiconductor VR32 systems. late 1980's [Barel 1987].
Distributed UNIX-like system developed at Bell Labs by the originators of UNIX. Features per-process name-spaces, allowing each process a customized view of the resources in the system. 1990s [Pike et al 1995].
Operating System for small PDP-11's attached to a host computer. Late 1970s [Maegaard & Andreasan 1979].
Rochester Intelligent Gateway. Network OS developed at the University of Rochester. Influenced Accent and Mach. Early 1970s [Ball et al 1976].
Distributed OS for multiple identical processors (LSI-11s). University of Wisconsin, Late 1970s [Solomon & Finkel 1979].
Distributed OS at the U. of Arizona, supporting varying degrees of transparency. Mid 1980s [Andrews et al 1987].
A Simplified OS for Distributed Applications. Mid 1980s [Kepecs & Solomon 1985].
OS for a Distributed System developed on the IBM Series/1 at the U. of Delaware. Late 1970s [Sincoskie & Farber 1980].
Distributed multiplatform OS developed by Sun. Not related to the Spring Kernel, a real-time system. 1990s [Mitchell et al 1994].
Multitasking, multiprocessing OS for the 68000 family. Technical Systems Consultants. Early 1980s [Mini-Micro 1986].
Experimental Distributed OS linking powerful bit-mapped workstations at Stanford U. Early 1980s [Cheriton 1984, Berglund 1986].
Distributed Programming Systems
Distributed programming systems combine a distributed OS with language support for a particular programming model. Very often these systems are object-oriented.
A distributed programming system featuring resilient objects. Developed at M.I.T. mid 1980s [Liskov 1984].
A C++ based distributed programming system based on objects and atomic actions, developed at the University of Newcastle upon Tyne [Shrivastava et al 1991].
A distributed object-based operating system based on fine-grained (object level) mobility. U. of Washington, 1980s [Jul et al 1988].
REAL-TIME OPERATING SYSTEMS
This category includes operating systems designed substantially for the purpose of controlling and monitoring external activities with timing constraints. Because effective real-time support dominates the design of such systems, most OSs with real-time capabilities are listed here even if they could logically be placed in other categories as well. This includes large and small systems, and distributed real-time systems.
Basic Realtime Monitor
Realtime OS for the Phillips P-855 and P-860. Early 1970s.
Board-level multitasking executive for National Semiconductor 8080 and Z-80 based CPU boards. Late 1970s [Zarella 1981, Rhodes 1981].
Small real-time OS for Z80, 6809, 8086, 68000. Boston Systems Office. Early 1980s [Mini-Micro 1986].
Memory-based real-time UNIX-like executive for the PDP-11 or VAX. Runs multiple C or Pascal Tasks. JMI Software Consultants. [Digital 1984].
Communications Control Program. Limited OS for the IBM System/3. Early 1970s [Taylor 1981].
Real time, multitasking, multiprocessing OS for 8086 family. Convergent Technologies Inc. Early 1980s [Mini-Micro 1986].
Specification for a version of TRON for communication and network control. Late 1980s [Ohkubo et al 1987].
Real-time, Unix-like OS for 16-bit microprocessor families and Micro-Vax, DGC MV series. Destek Group [Mini-Micro 1985].
The Duplex Multiple Environment Real Time Operating System. An extension of MERT providing both real-time telecommunications support and general timesharing. Predecessor to RTR. Early 1980s [Grzelakowski et al 1983].
A skeleton for a real-time minicomputer OS on the TI-980A, using a structure of multiple layers. Early 1970s [Frailey 1975].
Real time OS for the Modular One. Early 1970s.
Event-Driven Executive. Interactive real-time operating system for the IBM System/7 and Series/1. Mid 1970s [Harrison et al 1981].
Real-time executive for 8086. Electronic Information Systems. [Mini-Micro 1985].
Real-time disk operating system for the IBM 1710. Early 1960s [Harrison et al 1981].
Operating System for the Fast Amsterdam Multiprocessor (FAMP). A distributed, Real-time OS based on a network of M68000s with a UNIX host. Mid 1980s [Tuynman & Hertzberger 1986].
Generalized Executive for Realtime Multiprocessor Applications. An experimental OS for robotics systems at Ohio State U. Mid 1980s [Schwann 1985].
Real time multitasking executive for Intel 8086 family CPUs. Intel Corp. Late 1970's [Zarella 1981, Tucker 1973].
Specification for an industrial version of TRON for embedded applications. Late 1980s [Monden 1987].
A distributed real-time OS for laboratory control. [Raimondi 1976].
Multiple Environment, Real Time OS based partly on Unix. Late 1970s [Lycklama & Bayer 1978].
A portable executive for 8-bit microcomputers. Early 1980s [Wicklund 1982].
Multitasking Real-time OS for 68000 series.
Modular OS for the RCA SUMC Computer (Space Ultrareliable Modular Computer). A realtime OS designed to be modifiable. S&H Computing, Mid 1970s [Pruitt & Case 1975].
Small memory-resident OS for the Motorola 68000. Late 1970s [Pohjanpalo 1981].
Modular System Program 7. Real-time OS for the IBM System/7. Early 1970s [Harrison et al 1981].
Multitasking system Program. Real-time executive for 68000 and Z8000. Uses a "split onion" structure with access to all layers. Hemenway Corp., Early 1980s [Hemenway 1983].
Small real-time kernel for Z80, 6502, 6800, 8086, 68000. United States Software Corp. Early 1980s [Mini-Micro 1986].
OS/32-ST and OS/32-MT
Real time serial and multitasking operating systems for Interdata (later Perkin-Elmer) 7/16 and 7/32 minicomputers. Mid 1970s [Interdata 1974].
Realtime multiprogramming OS for Honeywell System 700. Early 1970s [Datapro 1974].
Real-time OS kernel for a variety of CPUs. Destek Group. [Mini-Micro 1985].
Time-sharing OS for laboratory automation. Late 1970s [Lindgard 1979].
Multiuser, multitasking, realtime OS for the 68000, and TI-9900 and 9905. Eyring Research [Roper 1984].
ROM-Based Real-time executive. Destek Group [Mini-Micro 1985].
Real-Time Memory-Based Kernel for 68000. Software Components [Mini-Micro 1985].
Reduced Core Monitor
Minimum realtime executive for the CDC System 17. Early 1970s [Datapro 1974].
Real time operating system for 6809 and 68000 family. Motorola. Early 1980s [Mini-Micro 1985, 1986].
Real-time OS for the 8080 & 8086. Intel Corp. Late 1970s [van der Linden & Wilson 1980].
Real-time Programming System. Real-time interactive operating system for the IBM Series/1, based on MSP/7 and MPX/1800. Late 1970s [Harrison et al 1981].
Realtime multitasking executive for DEC PDP-11. Based on RSX-15. Digital Equipment Corp. [Digital 1984, Cutler et al 1976].
Real-time multitasking executive for DEC PDP-15. Digital Equipment Corp. [Krejci 1971].
RTE-I, RTE-II, RTE-III, RTE-IV
Realtime Operating Systems for Hewlett-Packard HP 2000 series. Mid 1970s [Anzinger 1975, Averett 1975, Wong 1978].
Realtime virtual memory OS for dual HP1000s, featuring high reliability. Early 1980s [Serlin 1984].
Realtime Executive for HP 1000 A-series. Early 1980s [Hartman 1984].
Realtime executive for Interdata minicomputers. Early 1970s [Datapro 1974].
Realtime multiprogramming OS for GE computers.
Realtime executive for the AMC 95/4000. Late 1970s [van der Linden & Wilson 1980].
Realtime multiprogramming OS for General Automation System 18/30. Early 1970s [Datapro 1974].
A Real-Time Disk OS for Interdata Minicomputers. Early 1970s [Datapro 1974].
Real time operating system for Data General Nova. Early 1970s [Datapro 1974].
A Real time executive with foreground/background processing for General Automation SPC-16. Early 1970s [Datapro 1974].
A Real time multiprogramming OS for Prime 100, 200, 300. Early 1970s [Datapro 1974].
A Real-Time OS for the Digico Micro-16V. Early 1970s [Purser & Jennings 1975].
A Real-Time OS for the IBM S/360, designed to support manned spacecraft. Late 1960s [Weiler et al 1970].
Successor to DMERT for the AT&T 3B20 Duplex computer, featuring high reliability. Mid 1980s [Wallace & Barnes 1984].
Real Time Task Scheduler. OS for August Systems Can't Fail 300 with triple 8086s, featuring high reliability. Mid 1980s [Serlin 1984].
Real time OS based on Unix for 68000 based systems. Multiprocessing, multitasking, message driven. Emerge Systems, Early 1980s.
Realtime executive for General Automation System 18/30. Early 1970s [Datapro 1974].
Realtime executive for General Automation SPC-16. Early 1970s [Datapro 1974].
A Real-time OS for the Honeywell Series 16. Early 1970s.
Real time executive for the Texas Instruments TMS9900. Late 1970s [Zarella 1981].
Real time OS for Mod Comp Computers. Early 1970s [Datapro 1974].
SIGMA 7 OS
OS for the SDS Sigma 7 real-time data processing computer. Mid 1960s [Day & Krejci 1968].
Real-time, ROM-based development system. Infosphere. [Mini-Micro 1985].
Realtime OS for the Z80A. National Semiconductor [Mini-Micro 1985].
The Real-Time Operating System Nucleus. Specification for a family of real-time operating systems and an associated CPU architecture. Developed at U. of Tokyo. Mid 1980s [Sakamura 1987a, 1987b].
Real-time development system for 8086, 68000. United States Software Corp. Early 1980s [Mini-Micro 1986].
A Realtime object-oriented OS for the MicroVAX. Early 1980s [Heinen 1984].
Omnitasking realtime executive for Varian minicomputers. Early 1970s [Datapro 1974].
Versatile Real Time Executive. Modular real-time OS, portable to various micro CPUs. Hunter & Ready. Early 1980s [Funck 1984, Foard 1986, Ready 1986].